(born May 19, 1881 in Thessaloniki, died November 10, 1938 in Istanbul) - Turkish politician, military, co-founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey from 1923 to the death of 1938.
During the First World War he was one of the most important commanders of the army of the Ottoman Empire. After the defeat in the war, he opposed the partition of Turkey and took the lead in the war for independence. In independent Turkey, he took office as president, carrying out a series of political, economic and cultural reforms, transforming the Ottoman Empire into a modern and secular nation state. His actions gave rise to a kemalist ideology.