Józef Piłsudski (1867-1935) - Polish politician, military and leader of the state. He was born on December 5, 1867 in Zułów in today's Lithuania in a poor noble family. He studied medicine in Kharkiv; When he was twenty, he was sent to Siberia, from where he returned after five years. Activist of the Polish Socialist Party, co-founder of its faction - PPS-Revolutionary Faction. He edited the illegal magazine Robotnik. Organizer of Rifle Units and Polish Legions in the Austrian Partition. Commander of the First Brigade of the Legions. In the first days of World War I he made an unsuccessful attempt to start a national uprising in the area of the Russian partition. From 1914 to 1917, he was the Chief Commander of the Polish Military Organization. Then he was arrested and imprisoned in a German fortress in Magdeburg, which strengthened his reputation as a fighter for Polish independence. Released in early November 1918, he came to Warsaw and on the 22nd of the month took the post of the Head of State. Head of the armed forces during the Polish-Bolshevik war. Before the offensive in Kiev, he was appointed the Speaker of Poland. On August 16, 1920, he led a decisive maneuver flanking Wieprza, which determined the victory in the battle of Warsaw.
After the adoption of the March Constitution, significantly limiting the role of the head of state, he resigned from applying for the office of President of the Republic of Poland. He renounced all state functions and settled in a manor house in Sulejówek. In 1926 he carried out a military coup, taking over real power in the state. In the following years he held the offices of the Inspector General of the Armed Forces and the minister of military affairs, and temporarily also the prime minister. He undertook the dismantling of democratic institutions, built an environment of the so-called Sanacja, which gathered around himself, and made the parliament and the president dependent on himself, on whom he appointed a professor of chemistry, Ignacy Mościcki. He took over the full power in 1930 as a result of manipulated and partially falsified parliamentary elections known as the 'Brestelections'. He died on May 12, 1935, in less than three weeks after the adoption of a new constitution to strengthen his political position