Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías born July 28, 1954, died March 5, 2013 in Caracas - a Venezuelan military and socialist politician. Commander of the failed coup in 1992. In the years 1999-2013 he was the president of Venezuela. He was also the leader of the revolutionary movement, called the "Bolivarian Revolution".
He was born into a working family in the Sabanet in Barinas. After graduating from the military academy, he took part in the battles with the Leninist rebels and was promoted to the officer's rank. He quickly became a critic of the political system in Venezuela and founded the secret Bolivarian Revolutionary Movement. In 1992 he organized a failed coup d'état for which he was imprisoned. After his release, he created the Fifth Republic Movement, and in 1998 he was elected president of the country. Initially, he pursued economic policy close to the third way, but after the coup against his government in 2002, he adopted a socialist course in the economy. During subsequent terms, he introduced the Bolivarian missions, municipal councils, carried out agrarian reform, nationalized many key industries, and supported the construction of cooperatives. Thanks to the funds obtained from crude oil, he increased public spending on health and education, and his administration managed to significantly reduce poverty.
In the international arena, he formed an alliance with left-wing Latin American governments - Kuba, Bolivia, Ecuador and Nicaragua. On his initiative, organizations such as the Union of South American Nations, Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América and the Bank of the South were established.