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Carol II of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was the king of Romania between 1930 and 1940. He achieved power through a coup in 1930, because he renounced the throne in 1925, but the politicians prefered him to the regency of his underage son Michael.

In 1938, he decided to create a fascist single party called the National Renaissance Front to confront the growing influence of the more radical Iron Guard. In mid-1940, he transformed into a more radical Party of the Nation. However, he was outsted later that year and died in exile in Portugal in 1953.

He implemented the economic policy of corporatism. The NRF also had a youth organisation called The sentinel of the Motherland (Straja Țării) and a paramilitary wing called Lancers (Lăncieri), which engaged in violence against both Iron Guard supporters and the Jewish community. These supporters used the Roman salute to greet Carol.

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