Anwar as-Sadat, born December 25, 1918 at Mit Abu al-Kaum (Myth Abu el-Kom), d. October 6, 1981 in Cairo) - Egyptian military and politician, president of the country in 1970-1981. Laureate of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1978 (together with Menachem Begin).
He was a member of the Free Officers organization, he took part in the 1952 revolution. Completely loyal to its leader Gamal Abdel Nasser, he did not play a leading role in the new power-elite ruling army, he was associated with its right wing. It was not until 1960 that he took office as chairman of the parliament (National Assembly), from 1968 he sat in the authorities of the only legitimate Egyptian party - the Arab Socialist Union, in 1969 he became the vice-president of Egypt. In the following year, after the death of Nasser, he temporarily assumed the duties of the head of state, after which he remained at the office after the elections. He was then considered to be a transitional president, deprived of his own political base. However, he remained in power, depriving the leftist faction headed by Ali Sabrim. From 1972, he gradually withdrew from the Nasser leftist economic policy to the infitah program (Arab openly). The liberalization of the economy has led not only to the rapid economic growth of the country, but also, contrary to its intentions, the emergence of social inequalities unprecedented in its predecessor.
In 1973, as-Sadat began a war against Israel, the aim of which was to recover the lands lost in 1967 in the six-day war. In 1978, as-Sadat and Begin received the Nobel Peace Prize together.
The deteriorating relations between the president and Islamist organizations (including the largest - the Muslim Brothers' Association), which hosted the peaceful course of the foreign policy of as-Sadat, led to the delegalization of these groups and the arrest of their leaders in 1981. On October 6 of the same year, Anwar as-Sadat was murdered by the fundamentalists of the Egypt Jihad organization during the military parade.